Born: c. 1502 BC
Died: c. 1458 BC
Location of death: Egypt
Cause of death: Infection
Remains: Mummified, Egyptian Museum, Cairo, Egypt
Race or Ethnicity: Middle Eastern
Nationality: Ancient Egypt
Executive summary: Female Pharaoh of Egypt
Hatshepsut was a daughter of Pharaoh Thutmose I, and the half-sister and wife of Pharaoh Thutmose II. When he died the crown passed to his son by a lesser wife, Thutmose III. But the Third Thutmose was only an infant, so Hatshepsut acted as his guardian, made all royal decisions, and actually had herself declared Pharaoh and co-regent. Only the title was shared, however -- for almost twenty-one years, the power was hers.
She was the fifth Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's Eighteenth Dynasty, and launched brief and successful military campaigns near the Euphrates River (in present-day Iraq), and in Nubia (Sudan). Her reign was generally peaceful, however, with a foreign policy encouraging trade and eschewing warfare, which led to the accumulation of enormous wealth and funded hundreds of construction projects in both Upper and Lower Egypt.
She wore the traditional garb of Pharaohs, including men's clothing and a false beard, but made no serious effort to pass herself off as a man. She was the third woman to hold the title of Pharaoh, and is generally considered to have been the most powerful and successful of the few female Pharaohs. In the last years of her reign, she allowed Thutmose III to assume some actual control over policy decisions. He ruled for 33 years after Hatshepsut's death, and sought to have her name removed from all historical records.
The mummified remains of Pharaoh Hatshepsut were discovered by archaeologist Howard Carter in Egypt's Valley of the Kings in 1902, but were not conclusively identified until 2007.
Father: Thutmose I (Pharaoh)
Mother: Ahmose (consort)
Brother: Wadjmose (half-brother, mother was Mutnofret)
Brother: Amenose (half-brother, mother was Mutnofret)
Husband: Thutmose II (half-brother, mother was Mutnofret)
Risk Factors: Diabetes
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