|Pope Pius VIII|
AKA Francesco Saverio Castiglioni
Birthplace: Cingoli, Italy
Location of death: Rome, Italy
Cause of death: unspecified
Religion: Roman Catholic
Race or Ethnicity: White
Executive summary: Pope for 20 months, maybe poisoned
Pius VIII, pope from 1829 to 1830, who came of a notable family at Cingoli near Ancona, was born Francesco Xaviero Castiglioni on the 20th of November 1761. He studied canon law at Rome, became vicar-general at Anagni and later at Fano, and in 1800 was appointed bishop of Montalto. Because he refused the oath of allegiance to the Napoleonic king of Italy he was carried captive to France; but in 1816 his steadfastness was rewarded by his being created cardinal-priest of Sta. Maria in Trastevere; and this same year he was translated from the see of Montalto to that of Cesena. In 1821 he was made cardinal-bishop of Frascati, also grand penitentiary; and later he became prefect of the Congregation of the Index. In the conclave which followed the death of Pope Leo XII, Castiglioni, the candidate of France, was elected pope on the 31st of March 1829. He avoided nepotism, abandoned the system of espionage employed by his predecessor, and published an encyclical condemning Bible societies and secret associations. He rejoiced over Catholic emancipation in England, recognized Louis-Philippe as king of the French, and exhibited a pacific spirit in dealing with the problem of mixed marriages in Germany. Worn out with work, he died on the morning of the 1st of December 1830. His successor was Pope Gregory XVI.
Roman Catholic Pope 31-Mar-1829 to 30-Nov-1830
Civil Disobedience refused to pledge allegiance to the King of Italy
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