|Pope John XXI|
AKA Pedro Giuliano-Rebulo
Born: c. 1215
Birthplace: Lisbon, Portugal
Location of death: Viterbo, Italy
Cause of death: Accident - Misc
Religion: Roman Catholic
Race or Ethnicity: White
Executive summary: Roman Catholic Pope, 1276-77
John XXI, given name Pedro Giuliano-Rebulo, Roman Catholic Pope from the 8th of September 1276 to the 20th of May 1277 (he should be named John XX, but there is an error in the reckoning through the insertion of an antipope), a native of Portugal, educated for the church, became archdeacon and then Archbishop of Braga, and so ingratiated himself with Pope Gregory X at the council of Lyons (1274) that he was taken to Rome as cardina-bishop of Frascati, and succeeded Gregory after an interregnum of twenty days. As pope he excommunicated Alphonso III of Portugal for interfering with episcopal elections and sent legates to the Great Khan. He was devoted to secular science, and his small affection for the monks awakened the distrust of a large portion of the clergy. His life was brought to a premature close through the fall of the roof in the palace he had built at Viterbo. His successor was Nicholas III.
John XXI has been identified since the 14th century, most probably correctly, with Petrus Hispanus, a celebrated Portuguese physician and philosopher, author of several medical works -- notably the curious Liber de oculo, translated into German and well edited by A. M. Berger (Munich, 1899), and of a popular textbook in logic, the Summulae logicales. John XXI is constantly referred to as a magician by ignorant chroniclers.
Roman Catholic Pope 8-Sep-1276 to 20-May-1277
Roman Catholic Archbishop Braga
Roman Catholic Bishop Frascati
Roman Catholic Cardinal
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