|Josquin Des Prez|
Born: c. 1445
Birthplace: Condé-sur-l'Escaut, Hainaut
Location of death: Condé-sur-l'Escaut, Hainaut
Cause of death: unspecified
Remains: Buried, Collegiate Church of Notre-Dame, Conde-sur-l'Escaut, France
Religion: Roman Catholic
Race or Ethnicity: White
Executive summary: Master Renaissance composer
Also called Des Prés or Després, and by a latinized form of his name, Jodocus Pratensis, or A Prato, French musical composer, was born, probably in Condé in the Hennegau, about 1445. He was a pupil of Ockenheim, and himself one of the most learned musicians of his time. In spite of his great fame, the accounts of his life are vague and the dates contradictory. Fétis contributed greatly towards elucidating the doubtful points in his Biographie Universelle. In his early youth Josquin seems to have been a member of the choir of the collegiate church at St. Quentin; when his voice changed he went (about 1455) to Ockenheim to take lessons in counterpoint; afterwards he again lived at his birthplace for some years, until Pope Sixtus IV invited him to Rome to teach his art to the musicians of Italy, where musical knowledge at that time was at a low ebb.
In Rome Des Préz lived until the death of his protector in 1484, and it was there that many of his works were written. His reputation grew rapidly, and he was considered by his contemporaries to be the greatest master of his age. Martin Luther, who was a good judge, is credited with the saying that "other musicians do with notes what they can, Josquin what he likes." The composer's journey to Rome marks in a manner the transference of the art from its Gallo-Belgian birthplace to Italy, which for the next two centuries remained the center of the musical world. To Des Préz and his pupils Arcadelt, Mouton and others, much that is characteristic in modern music owes its rise, particularly in their influence upon Italian developments under Palestrina.
After leaving Rome Des Préz went for a time to Ferrara, where the duke Hercules I offered him a home; but before long he accepted an invitation of King Louis XII of France to become the chief singer of the royal chapel. According to another account, he was for a time at least in the service of the Emperor Maximilian I. The date of his death has by some writers been placed as early as 1501. But this is sufficiently disproved by the fact of one of his finest compositions, A Dirge (Déploration) for Five Voices, being written to commemorate the death of his master Ockenheim, which took place after 1512. The real date of Josquin's decease has since been settled as the 27th of August 1521. He was at that time a canon of the cathedral of Condé (see Victor Delzant's Sépultures de Flandre, No. 118).
The most complete list of his compositions -- consisting of masses, motets, psalms and other pieces of sacred music will be found in Fétis. The largest collection of his manuscript works, containing no less than twenty masses, is in the possession of the papal chapel in Rome. In his lifetime Des Préz was honored as an eminent composer, and the musicians of the 16th century are loud in his praise. During the 17th and 18th centuries his value was ignored, nor does his work appear in the collections of Martini and Paolucci. Charles Burney was the first to recover him from oblivion, and Forkel continued the task of rehabilitation. Ambros furnishes the most exhaustive account of his achievements. An admirable account of Josquin's art, from the rare point of view of a modern critic who knows how to allow for modern difficulties, will be found in the article "Josquin", in Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, new edition vol. ii. The Répertoire des Chanteurs de St. Gervais contains an excellent modern edition of Josquin's Miserere.
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