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Berlin Wall


Physical division of Berlin erected by East Germany, closing the border on 13 August 1961. In 1965, the wire fence was upgraded to a concrete wall, and in the late 1970s an even taller wall was phased in. The year 1987 had Ronald Reagan at Brandenburg Gate call Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall." On 9 November 1989, televised revelry signified the de facto end of the Wall, and on 13 June 1990, the wall was officially dismantled.

William F. Buckley. The Fall of the Berlin Wall. John Wiley & Sons. 2004. 212pp.

Curtis Cate. The Ides of August: The Berlin Wall Crisis: 1961. New York: M. Evans. 1978. 534pp.

Honoré Marc Catudal. Kennedy and the Berlin Wall Crisis: A Case Study in U.S. Decision Making. Berlin-Verlag. 1980. 358pp.

Norman Gelb. The Berlin Wall. London: Michael Joseph. 1986. 298pp.

Frederick Taylor. The Berlin Wall: A World Divided, 1961-1989. HarperCollins. 2007. 486pp.

Peter Wyden. Wall: The Inside Story of Divided Berlin. Simon and Schuster. 1989. 762pp.

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