Executive orders issued by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, freeing slaves in the Confederacy, though not those in slave states in the Union or controlled by the Union Army -- Maryland, Delaware, Missouri, Kentucky, and Tennessee. The first order, 22 September 1862, stated intention and specified a deadline of 1 January 1863. Upon reaching that date, Lincoln issued a second order freeing slaves in the states specified. As those states remained in rebel hands, the proclamation effected only symbolism until the latter days of the Civil War. The remaining slaves were freed with the ratification of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution, which did not come until 6 December 1865, after Lincoln's death.
See also Slavery in America and American Civil War.
Burrus M. Carnahan. Act of Justice: Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation and the Law of War. University Press of Kentucky. 2007. 202pp.
Frank Robert Donovan. Mr. Lincoln's Proclamation: The Story of the Emancipation Proclamation. Dodd, Mead. 1964. 146pp.
Allen C. Guelzo. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation: The End of Slavery in America. Simon and Schuster. 2005. 400pp.
Harold Holzer; Edna Greene Medford; Frank J. Williams. The Emancipation Proclamation: Three Views. LSU Press. 2006. 162pp.
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