Part of the Colorado Coal Strike, which took place in 1913-14. Attempting to put down a coal miner strike, the Colorado National Guard machine-gunned its way into a tent city in Ludlow, Colorado, and set it on fire. Twenty people are killed, among them twelve children; families are found asphyxiated in underground shelters. The massacre sparks the Colorado Coalfield War, ten days of violent reprisals against the mines, put down with the imposition of federal troops.
Thomas G. Andrews. Killing for Coal: America's Bloodiest Labor War. Harvard University Press. 2008. 408pp.
Howard M. Gitelman. Legacy of the Ludlow Massacre: A Chapter in American Industrial Relations. University of Pennsylvania Press. 1988. 355pp.
Scott Martelle. Blood Passion: The Ludlow Massacre and Class War in the American West. Rutgers University Press. 2007. 266pp.
George McGovern; with Leonard F. Guttridge. The Great Coalfield War. Houghton Mifflin. 1972. 383pp.
Zeese Papanikolas. Buried Unsung: Louis Tikas and the Ludlow Massacre. University of Nebraska Press. 1991. 331pp.
Leon Stein; Philip Taft (editor). Massacre at Ludlow: Four Reports. Arno. 1971. 452pp.
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