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Hans Spemann

Hans SpemannBorn: 27-Jun-1869
Birthplace: Stuttgart, Germany
Died: 9-Sep-1941
Location of death: Freiburg, Germany
Cause of death: unspecified

Gender: Male
Race or Ethnicity: White
Occupation: Scientist

Nationality: Germany
Executive summary: Experimental embryology

Military service: German Army (1889-90)

Sometimes called "the father of cloning", German scientist Hans Spemann conducted primitive cloning experiments and studied how embryo cells develop. In his earliest experiments, he split the cells of a two-celled salamander embryo into two parts, successfully producing two larvae. This disproved the then-accepted theory that cell division entails the loss of genetic information. Decades before it became technically possible he proposed using the nuclear transfer method to clone entire organisms.

Using micro-surgery techniques, he operated on fertilized animal eggs which were smaller than pinheads. His experiments showed that when an embryo is transplanted to a different region of an animal, it causes the surrounding tissue to develop abnormally, "as if it were the bastard of some primitive miscegenation." Called "the organizer effect", this research won Spemann the 1935 Nobel Prize for Medicine.

Father: Johann Wilhelm Spemann (publisher)
Mother: Lisinka Hoffman Spemann
Wife: Clara Binder Spemann (three sons, one daughter)

    High School: Eberhard-Ludwig School, Stuttgart, Germany (1888)
    University: BA Medicine, University of Heidelberg
    University: University of Munich
    Teacher: Zoology, University of Würzburg (1894-1908)
    University: PhD Anatomical Studies, University of Würzburg (1895)
    Professor: Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, University of Rostock (1908-14)
    Administrator: Kaiser Wilhelm (now Max Planck) Institute (1914-19)
    Professor: Zoology, University of Freiburg (1919-35)

    Nobel Prize for Medicine 1935

Author of books:
Embryonic Development and Induction (1938, research)

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