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Jean-Martin Charcot

Jean-Martin CharcotBorn: 29-Nov-1825
Birthplace: Paris, France
Died: 16-Aug-1893
Location of death: Auberge des Settons, France
Cause of death: unspecified
Remains: Buried, Montmartre Cemetery, Paris, France

Gender: Male
Religion: Roman Catholic
Race or Ethnicity: White
Sexual orientation: Straight
Occupation: Doctor

Nationality: France
Executive summary: Father of neurology

French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot discovered and described several neurological diseases, including Charcot's Joint, Charcot's Foot, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (with his student Pierre Marie and English physician Howard Henry Tooth) and Charcot's Disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, now better known as Lou Gehrig's disease). He also showed that gout and rheumatism are two distinct diseases, not one, as had been previously believed. He described muscular atrophy and muscular sclerosis, spinal cord degeneration, locomotor ataxia, senility, and miliary aneurysms as a factor in cerebral hemorrhages.

He taught at the University of Paris and at that city's Salpêtrière Asylum (now Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital), and established a neurology department there in 1862, where he conducted his famed research. His students included Joseph Babinski, Alfred Binet, Sigmund Freud, and Georges Gilles de la Tourette. Charcot proposed and showed that hysteria is not limited to women, and his use of hypnosis in treating hysteria inspired Freud's development of psychoanalysis. His son, physician and explorer Jean-Baptiste Charcot, led the French Antarctic Expedition of 1903-05, drew his era's most accurate map of the Antarctic, and married a granddaughter of Victor Hugo.

Father: (carriage builder)
Wife: Augustine Victoire Durvis Laurent Charcot (b. circa 1835, m. 30-Mar-1864, two children)
Son: Jean-Baptiste Charcot (explorer, b. 1867, d. 1936)

    High School: Pension Sabatier School, Paris, France (1843)
    Medical School: MD, University of Paris (1853)
    Teacher: University of Paris (1953-72)
    Professor: University of Paris (1872-93)

    Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital (1862-93)
    Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital Chief of Staff (1872-93)
    Medical Society of London
    Société de Biologie
    French Academy of Medicine
    French Academy of Sciences 1883
    French Ancestry

Author of books:
Leçons sur les Maladies du Système Nerveux (Lectures on the Diseases of the Nervous System) (1872, five volumes)
Leçons du Mardi à la Salpêtrière (Tuesday Lessons at the Salpêtrière) (1888)

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