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John Dennis

Born: 1657
Birthplace: London, England
Died: 6-Jan-1734
Location of death: London, England
Cause of death: unspecified

Gender: Male
Race or Ethnicity: White
Occupation: Critic, Playwright

Nationality: England
Executive summary: The Usefulness of the Stage

English critic and dramatist, the son of a saddler, born in London in 1657. He was educated at Harrow School and Caius College, Cambridge, where he took his B.A. degree in 1679. In the next year he was fined and dismissed from his college for having wounded a fellow-student with a sword. He was, however, received at Trinity Hall, where he took his M.A. degree in 1683. After travelling in France and Italy, he settled in London, where he became acquainted with John Dryden, William Wycherley and others; and being made temporarily independent by inheriting a small fortune, he devoted himself to literature. The Duke of Marlborough procured him a place as one of the queen's waiters in the customs with a salary of 120 a year. This he afterwards disposed of for a small sum, retaining, at the suggestion of Lord Halifax, a yearly charge upon it for a long term of years. Neither the poems nor the plays of Dennis are of any account, although one of his tragedies, a violent attack on the French in harmony with popular prejudice, entitled Liberty Asserted, was produced with great success at Lincoln's Inn Fields in 1704. His sense of his own importance approached mania, and he is said to have desired the Duke of Marlborough to have a special clause inserted in the treaty of Utrecht to secure him from French vengeance. Marlborough pointed out that although he had been a still greater enemy of the French nation, he had no fear for his own security. This tale and others of a similar nature may well be exaggerations prompted by his enemies, but the infirmities of character and temper indicated in them were real. Dennis is best remembered as a critic, and Isaac D'Israeli, who took a by no means favorable view of Dennis, said that some of his criticisms attain classical rank. The earlier ones, which have nothing of the rancor that afterwards gained him the nickname of "Furius", are the best. They are Remarks... (1696), on Blackmore's epic of Prince Arthur; Letters upon Several Occasions written by and between Mr. Dryden, Mr. Wycherley, Mr. Moyle, Mr. Congreve and Mr. Dennis, published by Mr. Dennis (1696); two pamphlets in reply to Jeremy Collier's Short View; The Advancement and Reformation of Modern Poetry (1701), perhaps his most important work The Grounds of Criticism in Poetry (1704), in which he argued that the ancients owed their superiority over the moderns in poetry to their religious attitude; an Essay upon Publick Spirit (1711), in which he inveighs against luxury, and servile imitation of foreign fashions and customs; and Essay on the Genius and Writings of Shakespeare in three Letters (1712).

Dennis had been offended by a humorous quotation made from his works by Joseph Addison, and published in 1713 Remarks upon Cato. Much of this criticism was acute and sensible, and it is quoted at considerable length by Samuel Johnson in his Life of Addison, but there is no doubt that Dennis was actuated by personal jealousy of Addison's success. Alexander Pope replied in The Narrative of Dr. Robert Norris, concerning the strange and deplorable frenzy of John Dennis... (1713). This pamphlet was full of personal abuse, exposing Dennis's foibles, but offering no defense of Cato. Addison repudiated any connivance in this attack, and indirectly notified Dennis that when he did answer his objections, it would be without personalities. Pope had already assailed Dennis in 1711 in the Essay on Criticism, as Appius. Dennis retorted by Reflections, Critical and Satirical..., a scurrilous production in which he taunted Pope with his deformity, saying among other things that he was "as stupid and as venomous as a hunch-backed toad." He also wrote in 1717 Remarks upon Mr. Pope's Translation of Homer... and A True Character of Mr. Pope. He accordingly figures in the Dunciad, and in a scathing note in the edition of 1729 Pope quotes his more outrageous attacks, and adds an insulting epigram attributed to Richard Savage, but now generally ascribed to Pope. More pamphlets followed, but Dennis's day was over. He outlived his annuity from the customs, and his last years were spent in great poverty. Bishop Atterbury sent him money, and he received a small sum annually from Robert Walpole. A benefit performance was organized at the Haymarket (December 18, 1733) on his behalf. Pope wrote for the occasion an ill-natured prologue which Colley Cibber recited. Dennis died within three weeks of this performance, on the 6th of January 1734.

His other works include several plays, for one of which, Appius and Virginia (1709), he invented a new kind of thunder. He wrote a curious Essay on the Operas after the Italian Manner (1706), maintaining that opera was the outgrowth of effeminate manners, and should, as such, be suppressed. Other criticisms include The Usefulness of the Stage (1698). His Works were published in 1702, Select Works... (2 vols.) in 1718, and Miscellaneous Tracts, the first volume only of which appeared, in 1727.

    High School: Harrow School
    University: BA, Caius College, Cambridge University (1679)
    University: MA, Trinity Hall, Cambridge University (1683)

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