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João I

João IBorn: 11-Apr-1357
Birthplace: Lisbon, Portugal
Died: 14-Aug-1433
Location of death: Lisbon, Portugal
Cause of death: unspecified
Remains: Buried, Monastery of Santa Maria da Vitoria, Batalha, Portugal

Gender: Male
Religion: Roman Catholic
Race or Ethnicity: White
Sexual orientation: Straight
Occupation: Royalty

Nationality: Portugal
Executive summary: King of Portugal, 1385-1433

Joćo I, King of Portugal, the natural son of Pedro I (el Justicieiro), was born at Lisbon on the 22nd of April 1357, and in 1364 was created grand-master of Aviz. On the death of his lawful brother Fernando I, without male issue, in October 1383, strenuous efforts were made to secure the succession for Beatrice, the only child of Fernando I, who as heiress-apparent had been married to John I of Castile, but the popular voice declared against an arrangement by which Portugal would virtually have become a Spanish province, and Joćo was after violent tumults proclaimed protector and regent in the following December. In April 1385 he was unanimously chosen king by the estates of the realm at Coimbra. The king of Castile invaded Portugal, but his army was compelled by pestilence to withdraw, and subsequently by the decisive battle of Aljubarrota (August 14, 1385) the stability of Joćo's throne was permanently secured. Hostilities continued intermittently until John of Castile died, without leaving issue by Beatrice, in 1390. Meanwhile the King of Portugal went on consolidating the power of the crown at home and the influence of the nation abroad. In 1415 Ceuta was taken from the Moors by his sons who had been born to him by his wife Philippa, daughter of John, Duke of Lancaster; specially distinguished in the siege was Prince Henry the Navigator. Joćo I, sometimes surnamed "the Great", and sometimes "father of his country", died on the 14th of August 1433, in the forty-eighth year of a reign which had been characterized by great prudence, ability and success; he was succeeded by his son Edward or Duarte, so named out of compliment to King Edward III of England.

Father: Pedro I (King of Portugal)
Mother: Teresa Lourenço
Brother: Fernando I (half-brother, King of Portugal)
Wife: Philippa (dau. of John of Gaunt the Duke of Lancaster)
Son: (d. infancy)
Son: Duarte (b. 1381, King of Portugal)
Son: Dom Pedro (b. 1392)
Son: Henry the Navigator
Son: (Master of the Order of Santiago)
Son: Dom Fernando (d. in captivity of the Moorish)
Daughter: Isabel (m. Duke of Burgundy)

    Portuguese Monarch 1385 to 14-Aug-1433

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