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Frank Macfarlane Burnet

Frank Macfarlane BurnetBorn: 3-Sep-1899
Birthplace: Traralgon, Australia
Died: 31-Aug-1985
Location of death: Melbourne, Australia
Cause of death: Cancer - Colon
Remains: Buried, Tower Hill Cemetery, near Port Fairy, Australia

Gender: Male
Religion: Presbyterian
Race or Ethnicity: White
Sexual orientation: Straight
Occupation: Scientist, Doctor

Nationality: Australia
Executive summary: Acquired immunological tolerance

Frank Macfarlane Burnet -- friends called him 'Mac' -- started collecting beetles when he was a boy. From endless days spent reading and re-reading an encyclopedia, he developed an early admiration for Charles Darwin, and his views about science and society were largely influenced by reading H. G. Wells. In his long career, Burnet developed two concepts that have proven very influential in immunology: First, acquired immunological tolerance, which was the cornerstone upon which organ transplantation has become almost routine, and second, the clonal selection theory of antibody production, which showed how antigens are targeted for destruction by lymphocytes. Burnet won the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology in 1960, shared with Peter Medawar.

Father: Frank Burnet (bank manager, b. 1856)
Mother: Hadassah Pollock Mackay (b. 1872)
Wife: Edith Linda Marston Druce Burnet (m. 10-Jul-1928, d. 1973 leukemia)
Son: Ian Burnet
Daughter: Elizabeth Burnet Dexter
Daughter: Deborah Burnet Giddy
Wife: Hazel Jenkin (m. 1976)

    High School: Geelong College, Geelong, Australia
    University: BS Medicine, University of Melbourne (1922)
    University: BS Surgery, University of Melbourne (1922)
    Medical School: MD, University of Melbourne (1924)
    Scholar: Pathology, University of Melbourne (1924-26)
    Scholar: Lister Institute, London, England (1925-27)
    University: PhD Bacteriology, University of London (1928)
    Scholar: Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Australia (1926-44)
    Scholar: National Institute for Medical Research, London, England (1932-33)
    Administrator: National Institute for Medical Research, London, England (1944-65)
    Professor: Experimental Medicine, University of Melbourne (1944-65)

    Royal Medal 1947
    Lasker Award 1953
    Order of Merit 1958
    Copley Medal 1959
    Nobel Prize for Medicine 1960 (with Peter Medawar)
    Australian of the Year 1960
    Knight of the British Empire 1969
    Order of Australia 1978
    Royal Society 1942
    Royal College of Physicians 1953
    Royal College of Surgeons 1953
    National Academy of Sciences 1954
    American Association for the Advancement of Science 1958
    World Health Organization Advisory Committee (1959-63)
    American Philosophical Society 1960
    Australian Ancestry Maternal
    Scottish Ancestry Paternal

Author of books:
The Use of the Developing Egg in Virus Research (1936)
Biological Aspects of Infectious Disease (1940)
Virus as Organism: Evolutionary and Ecological Aspects of Some Human Virus Diseases (1945)
The Background of Infectious Diseases in Man (1946)
Viruses and Man (1953)
Principles of Animal Virology (1955)
Enzyme, Antigen and Virus: A Study of Macromolecular Pattern in Action (1956)
Clonal Selection Theory of Acquired Immunity (1958)
The Viruses: Biochemical, Biological and Biophysical Properties (1959, co-author Wendell M. Stanley)
The Integrity of the Body: A Discussion of Modern Immunological Ideas (1962)
Autoimmune Diseases: Pathogenesis, Chemistry and Therapy (1963, co-author Ian MacKay)
Biology and the Appreciation of Life (1968)
Changing Patterns: An Atypical Autobiography (1968, autobiography)
Self and Not-Self (1969)
Cellular Immunology (1969)
Dominant Mammal: The Biology of Human Destiny (1970)
Immunological Surveillance (1970)
Genes, Dreams and Realities (1971)
Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Disease: A Survey for Physician or Biologist (1972)
Intrinsic Mutagenesis: A Genetic Approach to Aging (1974)
The Biology of Aging (1974)
Endurance of Life: The Implications of Genetics for Human Life (1974)
Immunology, Ageing and Cancer: Medical Aspects of Mutation and Selection (1978)
Credo and Comment: A Scientist Reflects (1979, memoir)

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