|Pope Paul V|
AKA Camillo Borghese
Birthplace: Rome, Italy
Location of death: Rome, Italy
Cause of death: unspecified
Religion: Roman Catholic
Race or Ethnicity: White
Executive summary: Roman Catholic Pope, 1605-21
Paul V, given name Camillo Borghese, successor of Pope Leo XI, was born in Rome on the 17th of September 1552, of a noble family. He studied in Perugia and Padua, became a canon lawyer, and was vice-legate in Bologna. As a reward of a successful mission to Spain, Pope Clement VIII made him cardinal (1596) and later vicar in Rome and inquisitor. Elevated to the papacy on the 16th of May 1605, his extreme conception of papal prerogative, his arrogance and obstinacy, his perverse insistence upon the theoretical and disregard of the actual, made strife inevitable. He provoked disputes with the Italian states over ecclesiastical rights. Savoy, Genoa, Tuscany and Naples, wishing to avoid a rupture, yielded; but Venice resisted. The republic stood upon her right to judge all her subjects, and by her demands touching benefices, tithes and papal bulls showed her determination to be supreme in her own territory. Excommunication and interdict (April 17, 1606) were met with defiance. The cause of the republic was brilliantly advocated by Fra Paolo Sarpi, counsellor of state; the defenders of the papal theory were Cardinals Baronius and Robert Bellarmine. The pope talked of coercion by arms; but Spain, to whom he looked for support, refused to be drawn into war, and the quarrel was finally settled by the mediation of France (March 22, 1607). Notwithstanding certain concessions, the victory remained with the republic.
Paul became involved in a quarrel with England also. After the Gunpowder Plot parliament required a new oath of allegiance to the king and a denial of the right of the pope to depose him or release his subjects from their obedience. Paul forbade Roman Catholics to take the oath; but to no purpose, beyond stirring up a literary controversy. By his condemnation of Gallicanism (1613) Paul angered France, and provoked the defiant declaration of the states general of 1614 that the king held his crown from God alone.
Paul encouraged missions, confirmed many new congregations and brotherhoods, authorized a new version of the Ritual, and canonized Carlo Borromeo. His devotion to the interests of his family exceeded all bounds, and they became enormously wealthy. Paul began the famous Villa Borghese; enlarged the Quirinal and Vatican; completed the nave, fašade and portico of St. Peter's; erected the Borghese Chapel in Sta. Maria Maggiore; and restored the aqueduct of Augustus and Trajan ("Acqua Paolina"). He also added to the Vatican library, and began a collection of antiquities. Paul died on the 28th of January 1621, and was succeeded by Pope Gregory XV.
Roman Catholic Pope 16-May-1605 to 28-Jan-1621
Roman Catholic Cardinal 1596
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