Birthplace: Bavaria, Germany
Location of death: New York City
Cause of death: unspecified
Race or Ethnicity: White
Nationality: United States
Executive summary: Jewish reform movement
Leader of the Jewish reform movement in the United States of America, born in Bavaria. He was a supporter of the principles of Abraham Geiger, and while still in Germany advocated the introduction of prayers in the vernacular, the exclusion of nationalistic hopes from the synagogue service, and other ritual modifications. In 1855 he emigrated to America, where he became the acknowledged leader of reform, and laid the foundation of the regime under which the mass of American Jews now worship. In 1858 he published his revised prayer book, which has formed the model for all subsequent revisions. In 1861 he strongly supported the anti-slavery party, and was forced to leave Baltimore where he then ministered. He continued his work first in Philadelphia and later in New York.
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