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Fritz Fischer

Born: 5-Mar-1908
Birthplace: Ludwigstadt, Germany
Died: 1-Dec-1999
Location of death: Hamburg, Germany
Cause of death: unspecified

Gender: Male
Religion: Christian
Race or Ethnicity: White
Sexual orientation: Straight
Occupation: Historian

Nationality: Germany
Executive summary: Blamed Germany for World War I

Military service: German Army (WWII)

German historian Fritz Fischer wrote extensively on the motives that drove German ambitions in World War I, and delved into aspects of German political continuity from the first World War to the Second. Bolstered by documents establishing that Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg had pre-WWI plans to annex parts of France and Russia and all of Belgium, Fischer challenged the popular conception among Germans that the war had been a defensive struggle. He also wrote about the history of Germany's Lutheran Church, and alleged that its "glorification of the state at the expense of civil liberties" contributed to the rise of Nazism and the rush to World War II. Fischer was at the forefront of his nation's post-WWII soul-searching, and while he was greatly respected worldwide, his work remained extremely controversial in his native land for decades. He was himself a member of the Nazi Party from 1937 until resigning in 1942.

Wife: Margarete Lauth-Volkmann Fischer (m. 1942, one daughter, one son)

    High School: Gymnasium der Bischofsstadt, Eichstätt, Germany
    University: University of Erlangen
    University: PhD Theology, University of Berlin (1934)
    University: PhD Philosophy, University of Berlin (1937)
    Professor: Modern and Medieval History, University of Hamburg (1948-73)

    Taken Prisoner of War (1945-47)
    National Socialist German Workers Party (1937-42)
    Bavarian Ancestry
    German Ancestry

Author of books:
Moritz August von Bethmann-Hollweg und der Protestantismus (Moritz August von Bethmann-Hollweg and Protestantism) (1938)
Ludwig Nikolvius: Rokoko, Reform, Restauration (Ludwig Nikolvius: Rococo, Reform, Restoration) (1942)
Griff nach der Weltmacht: Die Kriegszielpolitik des Kaiserlichen Deutschland (Germany's Aims in the First World War) (1961)
Weltmacht oder Niedergang: Deutschland im ersten Weltkrieg (World Power or Decline: The Controversy over Germany's Aims in the First World War (1965)
Bündnis der Eliten: Zur Kontinuität der Machstrukturen in Deutschland, 1871–1945 (Alliance of Elites: The continuity of Power in Germany, 1871-1945) (1979)
Krieg der Illusionen: Die Deutsche Politik von 1911 bis 1914 (War of Illusions: German Policies from 1911 to 1914) (1969)
Hitler War Kein Betriebsunfall (Hitler Was Not An Accident) (1991)


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