|Pope Gregory IX|
AKA Ugolino Conti de Segni
Born: c. 1170
Location of death: Rome, Italy
Cause of death: unspecified
Religion: Roman Catholic
Race or Ethnicity: White
Executive summary: Roman Catholic Pope, 1227-41
Gregory IX, born Ugolino Conti de Segni, Roman Catholic Pope from the 19th of March 1227, to the 22nd of August 1241, was a nobleman of Anagni and probably a nephew of Pope Innocent III. He studied at Paris and Bologna, and, having been successively archpriest of St. Peter's, papal chaplain, cardinal-deacon of Sant' Eustachio, cardinal-bishop of Ostia, the first protector of the Franciscan order, and papal legate in Germany under Innocent III, and Honorius III, he succeeded the latter in the papacy. He had long been on friendly terms with the emperor Frederick II, but now excommunicated him (29th of September 1227) for continued neglect of his vows and refusal to undertake the crusade. When Frederick finally set out the following June without making submission to the pope, Gregory raised an insurrection against him in Germany, and forced him in 1230 to beg for absolution. The Romans, however, soon began a very bitter war against the temporal power and exiled the pope (1st of June 1231). Hardly had this contest been brought to an end favorable to the papacy (May 1235) when Gregory came into fresh conflict with Frederick II. He again excommunicated the emperor and released his subjects from their allegiance (24th of March 1239). Frederick, on his side, invaded the Papal States and prevented the assembling of a general council convoked for Easter 1241. The work of Gregory, however, was by no means limited to his relations with emperor and Romans. He systematized the Inquisition and entrusted it to the Dominicans; his rules against heretics remained in force until the time of Pope Sixtus V. He supported King Henry III against the English barons, and protested against the Pragmatic Sanction of Louis IX of France. He sent monks to Constantinople to negotiate with the Greeks for church unity, but without result. He canonized Saints Elizabeth of Thuringia, Dominic, Anthony of Padua and Francis of Assisi. He permitted free study of the Aristotelian writings, and issued (1234), through his chaplain, Raymond of Pennaforte, an important new compilation of decretals which he prescribed in the bull Rex Pacificus should be the standard textbook in canon law at the universities of Bologna and Paris. Gregory was famed for his learning and eloquence, his blameless life, and his great strength of character. He died on the 22nd of August 1241, while Frederick II was advancing against him, and was succeeded by Pope Celestine IV.
Roman Catholic Pope 19-Mar-1227 to 22-Aug-1241
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