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Samuel C. Collins

AKA Samuel Cornette Collins

Born: 28-Dec-1898
Birthplace: Democrat, KY
Died: 19-Jun-1984
Location of death: Washington, DC
Cause of death: unspecified

Gender: Male
Race or Ethnicity: White
Occupation: Chemist, Inventor

Nationality: United States
Executive summary: Collins-type cryocooler

At MIT in 1946, Samuel C. Collins designed and constructed the Collins Helium Cryostat, the first practical helium liquefier. The machine, a two-cylinder engine with the cold exhaust from one cylinder cooling the intake gas of the other cylinder, allowed the production of liquid helium without external coolants, and enabled affordable experiments in temperatures descending to near absolute zero. Within a decade more than 200 of the machines were installed in laboratories worldwide. Collins also invented a device for producing high purity oxygen, and an early heart-lung machine used in emergency and rescue operations.

    University: BS, University of Tennessee (1920)
    University: MS, University of Tennessee (1924)
    University: PhD, University of North Carolina (1927)
    Teacher: Carson-Newman College
    Teacher: University of Tennessee
    Teacher: East Tennessee State University
    Teacher: University of North Carolina
    Teacher: Physical Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1930-41)
    Teacher: Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1941-49)
    Professor: Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1949-84)
    Administrator: Director, Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory, MIT (1949-84)

    ASME Medal 1968
    Rumford Prize 1965
    American Society of Mechanical Engineers
    National Academy of Sciences 1969
    American Academy of Arts and Sciences

Author of books:
Expansion Machines for Low Temperature Processes (1958, with Richard Lee Cannaday)
Means for Producing and Maintaining Very Low Temperatures (1958)


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