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National Academy of Sciences

PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATION

Founded by request of President Abraham Lincoln and an act of Congress on 3 March 1863.

Official Website:
http://www.nationalacademies.org/nas/

Founding Date:
3-Mar-1863

NameOccupationBirthDeathKnown for
Cleveland Abbe
Physicist
3-Dec-1838 28-Oct-1916 America's first weatherman
Charles Greeley Abbot
Astronomer
31-May-1872 17-Dec-1973 Solar energy
Alexei A. Abrikosov
Physicist
25-Jun-1928   Particle physicist, explored superconductivity
Roger Adams
Chemist
2-Jan-1889 6-Jul-1971 Organic chemist at Illinois
Walter S. Adams
Astronomer
20-Dec-1876 11-May-1956 Long-time director of Mt. Wilson Observatory
Peter Agre
Biologist
30-Jan-1949   Water channels of cell membranes
George A. Akerlof
Economist
17-Jun-1940   Asymmetric markets
William Foxwell Albright
Archaeologist
24-May-1891 19-Sep-1971 Biblical archaeologist at Johns Hopkins
Zhores I. Alferov
Scientist
15-Mar-1930   Developed solar cells for the Sputnik program
Hannes Alfvén
Physicist
30-May-1908 2-Apr-1995 Renegade Swedish astrophysicist
Graham T. Allison
Scholar
23-Mar-1940   Kennedy School of Government
Sidney Altman
Chemist
7-May-1939   Proved enzyme role of RNA
Luis W. Alvarez
Physicist
13-Jun-1911 1-Sep-1988 Particle accelerator, extinction of dinosaurs
Carl David Anderson
Physicist
3-Sep-1905 11-Jan-1991 Discovered the positron, mu-meson
Philip W. Anderson
Physicist
13-Dec-1923   Solid state physics
Christian Anfinsen
Chemist
26-Mar-1916 14-May-1995 Protein structure and folding
Daniel I. Arnon
Biologist
14-Nov-1910 20-Dec-1994 Photophosphorylation
Kenneth J. Arrow
Economist
23-Aug-1921   Social Choice and Individual Values
Robert J. Aumann
Economist
8-Jun-1930   Game theorist
Oswald Avery
Biologist
21-Oct-1877 20-Feb-1955 Antibodies and DNA
Richard Axel
Scientist
2-Jul-1946   Odorant receptors and olfactory organization
Harold D. Babcock
Astronomer
24-Jan-1882 8-Apr-1968 Solar radiation
Horace W. Babcock
Astronomer
13-Sep-1912 29-Aug-2003 Adaptive optics and the Babcock Model
Alexander Dallas Bache
Physicist
19-Jul-1806 17-Feb-1867 First President, National Academy of Sciences
Leo Baekeland
Scientist
14-Nov-1863 23-Feb-1944 Father of plastics
Kenneth Bainbridge
Physicist
27-Jul-1904 14-Jul-1996 Director of the Trinity atomic test
David Baltimore
Biologist
7-Mar-1938   Co-Discoverer, reverse transcriptase
John Bardeen
Physicist
23-May-1908 30-Jan-1991 Co-Inventor of the transistor
Edward Barnard
Astronomer
16-Dec-1857 16-Feb-1923 Self-taught scientist
Derek Barton
Chemist
8-Sep-1918 16-Mar-1998 Conformational analysis
Jacqueline K. Barton
Chemist
7-May-1952   Professor of Chemistry at CalTech
David Bates
Astronomer
18-Nov-1916 5-Jan-1994 Atmospheric and interstellar physics
Donald R. Beall
Business
c. 1939   CEO of Rockwell, 1988-98
Gary S. Becker
Economist
2-Dec-1930   Human Capital
Arnold Beckman
Inventor
10-Apr-1900 18-May-2004 Philanthropist who invented pH meter
Baruj Benacerraf
Scientist
29-Oct-1920 2-Aug-2011 Gene control of HLA antigens
Paul Berg
Chemist
30-Jun-1926   Pioneer in recombinant DNA
Sune K. Bergström
Scientist
10-Jan-1916 15-Aug-2004 Prostaglandins
Lipman Bers
Mathematician
22-May-1914 29-Oct-1993 Riemann surfaces
Hans Bethe
Physicist
2-Jul-1906 6-Mar-2005 Atomic scientist
Bruce A. Beutler
Biologist
29-Dec-1957   Lipopolysaccharide receptors
John S. Billings
Administrator
12-Apr-1838 11-Mar-1913 New York Public Library
Robert J. Birgeneau
Educator
1942   Chancellor, UC Berkeley
George David Birkhoff
Mathematician
21-Mar-1884 12-Nov-1944 Modern theory of dynamical systems
J. Michael Bishop
Scientist
22-Feb-1936   Genetic causes of cancer
Elizabeth H. Blackburn
Scientist
26-Nov-1948   Co-Discoverer of telomerase
David H. Blackwell
Mathematician
24-Apr-1919 8-Jul-2010 Bayesian statistics
Alfred Blalock
Doctor
5-Apr-1899 15-Sep-1964 "Blue baby" operation
Rebecca M. Blank
Economist
19-Sep-1955   Council of Economic Advisers, 1998-99
Günter Blobel
Scientist
21-May-1936   Protein signaling in cells
Felix Bloch
Physicist
23-Oct-1905 10-Sep-1983 Nuclear magnetic resonance
Konrad Bloch
Scientist
21-Jan-1912 15-Oct-2000 Cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism
Nicolaas Bloembergen
Physicist
11-Mar-1920   Nonlinear optics
Baruch S. Blumberg
Scientist
28-Jul-1925 5-Apr-2011 Hepatitis B vaccine
Bart Jan Bok
Astronomer
28-Apr-1906 5-Aug-1983 Bok globules
John G. Bolton
Astronomer
5-Jun-1922 6-Jul-1993 First Director of Parkes Observatory
Jules Bordet
Scientist
13-Jun-1870 6-Apr-1961 Researched antibodies and antigens
Edwin G. Boring
Psychologist
23-Oct-1886 1-Jul-1968 A History of Experimental Psychology
Kenneth E. Boulding
Economist
18-Jan-1910 18-Mar-1993 The Image: Knowledge of Life in Society
Ira S. Bowen
Astronomer
21-Dec-1898 6-Feb-1973 Debunked nebulium
Herbert W. Boyer
Biologist
10-Jul-1936   Recombinant DNA, first synthetic insulin
Paul D. Boyer
Chemist
31-Jul-1918   ATP process
Walter H. Brattain
Physicist
10-Feb-1902 13-Oct-1987 Co-Inventor of the transistor
James Henry Breasted
Archaeologist
27-Aug-1865 2-Dec-1935 A History of Egypt
Gregory Breit
Physicist
14-Jul-1899 11-Sep-1981 Proton-proton dispersion
Percy Williams Bridgman
Physicist
21-Apr-1882 20-Aug-1961 High-pressure physics
Wallace R. Brode
Chemist
12-Jun-1900 10-Aug-1974 Absorption spectra of dyes
Louis de Broglie
Physicist
15-Aug-1892 19-Mar-1987 Discovered the wave nature of electrons
Fred Brooks
Computer Programmer
19-Apr-1931   Father of the IBM System 360
Dirk Brouwer
Astronomer
1-Sep-1902 31-Jan-1966 Celestial mechanics
Ernest W. Brown
Astronomer
29-Nov-1866 22-Jul-1938 Tables of the Motion of the Moon
Herbert C. Brown
Chemist
22-May-1912 19-Dec-2004 Discovered organoboranes
Michael S. Brown
Biologist
13-Apr-1941   Metabolism of cholesterol
Robert A. Brown
Educator
22-Jul-1951   President, Boston University
Linda B. Buck
Biologist
29-Jan-1947   Odorant receptors and olfactory organization
E. Margaret Burbidge
Astronomer
12-Aug-1919   Synthesis of the elements in stars
Frank Macfarlane Burnet
Scientist
3-Sep-1899 31-Aug-1985 Acquired immunological tolerance
Vannevar Bush
Scientist
11-Mar-1890 30-Jun-1974 Pre-internet visionary
Robert N. Butler
Doctor
21-Jan-1927 4-Jul-2010 Expert on aging
Melvin Calvin
Chemist
8-Apr-1911 8-Jan-1997 Deciphered photosynthesis
William W. Campbell
Astronomer
11-Apr-1862 14-Jun-1938 Stellar Motions
Claude R. Canizares
Physicist
1945   Bruno Rossi Professor of Physics
Walter Bradford Cannon
Scientist
19-Oct-1871 1-Oct-1945 Fight or flight response
Nancy Cantor
Educator
c. 1952   Chancellor, Syracuse University
Mario Capecchi
Scientist
6-Oct-1937   Knock-out mice
Anton J. Carlson
Biologist
29-Jan-1875 2-Sep-1956 The Machinery of the Body
Arvid Carlsson
Scientist
25-Jan-1923   Signal transduction in the nervous system
Wallace Hume Carothers
Chemist
27-Apr-1896 29-Apr-1937 Inventor of Nylon
Henri Cartan
Mathematician
8-Jul-1904 13-Aug-2008 Leader of the math Bourbakistes
James McKeen Cattell
Psychologist
24-May-1860 20-Jan-1944 Academic freedom
Thomas R. Cech
Chemist
8-Dec-1947   Proved enzyme role of RNA
Ananda M. Chakrabarty
Scientist
4-Apr-1938   Oil-eating bacteria
Martin Chalfie
Scientist
1947   Green Fluorescent Protein
Owen Chamberlain
Physicist
10-Jul-1920 28-Feb-2006 Co-Discoverer of the antiproton
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
Astronomer
19-Oct-1910 21-Aug-1995 Evolutionary stages of stars
Sydney Chapman
Mathematician
29-Jan-1888 16-Jun-1970 Geomagnetism
Erwin Chargaff
Biologist
11-Aug-1905 20-Jun-2002 Biochemist at Columbia University
Jule Charney
Scientist
1-Jan-1917 16-Jun-1981 Quasi-gesotrophic theory
Noam Chomsky
Linguist
7-Dec-1928   Linguist, dissident intellectual
Steven Chu
Physicist
28-Feb-1948   US Secretary of Energy
Alonzo Church
Mathematician
14-Jun-1903 11-Aug-1995 Lambda calculus, Church-Turing thesis
Aaron Ciechanover
Scientist
1-Oct-1947   Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation
William W. Coblentz
Astronomer
20-Nov-1873 15-Sep-1962 Infrared spectroscopy
Stanley Cohen
Scientist
17-Nov-1922   Nerve and skin cell growth factors
Stanley N. Cohen
Biologist
17-Feb-1935   Recombinant DNA
Stephen P. Cohen
Scholar
c. 1946   Foreign policy analyst
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji
Physicist
1-Apr-1933   Trapped atoms with laser light
James S. Coleman
Sociologist
12-May-1926 25-Mar-1995 Foundations of Social Theory
Francis Collins
Scientist
14-Apr-1950   Human Genome Project
Samuel C. Collins
Chemist
28-Dec-1898 19-Jun-1984 Collins-type cryocooler
Arthur H. Compton
Physicist
10-Sep-1892 15-Mar-1962 Discovered the Compton Effect
Karl T. Compton
Physicist
15-Sep-1887 22-Jun-1954 Bikini Island atomic tests
James B. Conant
Educator
26-Mar-1893 11-Feb-1978 President of Harvard, 1933-53
Edward Condon
Physicist
2-Mar-1902 26-Mar-1974 Quantum Mechanics
William D. Coolidge
Physicist
23-Oct-1873 4-Feb-1975 Tungsten filaments and Coolidge tubes
Leon N. Cooper
Physicist
28-Feb-1930   BCS Theory of Superconductivity
Carl Cori
Scientist
5-Dec-1896 20-Oct-1984 Catalytic conversion of glycogen
Gerty Cori
Scientist
15-Aug-1896 26-Oct-1957 Catalytic conversion of glycogen
Allan M. Cormack
Physicist
23-Feb-1924 7-May-1998 Computerized axial tomography (CAT scans)
John Cornforth
Chemist
7-Sep-1917   Stereochemistry of enzyme-catalysts
F. Albert Cotton
Chemist
9-Apr-1930 20-Feb-2007 Metal-metal bonds
Alan Cottrell
Scientist
17-Jul-1919 15-Feb-2012 Metallurgist at Cambridge
Frederick G. Cottrell
Inventor
10-Jan-1877 16-Nov-1948 Smokestack filters to fight pollution
André F. Cournand
Scientist
24-Sep-1895 19-Feb-1988 Cardiac catheterization
Jacques Cousteau
Activist
11-Jun-1910 25-Jun-1997 Oceanographer, environmentalist
Donald J. Cram
Chemist
22-Apr-1919 17-Jun-2001 Synthesis of molecules
Lester Crawford
Government
13-Mar-1938   FDA Commissioner, 2005
James W. Cronin
Physicist
29-Sep-1931   Time not necessarily reversible
Paul J. Crutzen
Physicist
3-Dec-1933   Ozone depletion
Robert F. Curl, Jr.
Chemist
23-Aug-1933   Co-Discovered fullerines
Harvey Cushing
Doctor
8-Apr-1869 7-Oct-1939 Cushing's Syndrome
Richard Dalitz
Physicist
28-Feb-1925 13-Jan-2006 Dalitz pairs and Dalitz plots
Raymond Davis, Jr.
Scientist
14-Oct-1914 31-May-2006 Detected solar neutrinos
Michael DeBakey
Doctor
7-Sep-1908 11-Jul-2008 Father of cardiovascular surgery
Gerard Debreu
Economist
4-Jul-1921 31-Dec-2004 Supply and demand theorist
Johann Deisenhofer
Chemist
30-Sep-1943   Proteins of photosynthesis
Max Delbrück
Scientist
4-Sep-1906 10-Mar-1981 Molecular structure of viral genes (phages)
Peter B. Dervan
Chemist
28-Jun-1945   DNA Researcher
Persi Diaconis
Mathematician
31-Jan-1945   Science of random numbers
Jared Diamond
Scientist
10-Sep-1937   Collapse of societies
Peter Diamond
Economist
29-Apr-1940   Diamond paradox in economics
Robert H. Dicke
Physicist
6-May-1916 4-Mar-1997 Dicke radiometer
Paul Dirac
Physicist
8-Aug-1902 20-Oct-1984 The Principles of Quantum Mechanics
T. G. Dobzhansky
Scientist
25-Jan-1900 18-Dec-1975 Genetics and the Origin of Species
Henry Draper
Astronomer
7-Mar-1837 20-Nov-1882 Early astrophotographer
John William Draper
Chemist
5-May-1811 4-Jan-1882 Radiant energy and portrait photography
Sidney D. Drell
Physicist
13-Sep-1926   In the Shadow of the Bomb
Daniel C. Drucker
Engineer
1918 25-Aug-2001 Drucker's stability postulate
William F. Durand
Engineer
5-Mar-1859 9-Aug-1958 National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Robert C. Dynes
Educator
8-Nov-1942   President, University of California, 2003-08
Frank W. Dyson
Astronomer
8-Jan-1868 25-May-1939 Six pips on the BBC
Freeman Dyson
Physicist
15-Dec-1923   Theoretical physicist at Institute for Advanced Study
John Eccles
Scientist
27-Jan-1903 2-May-1997 Membrane potential of nerves
Arthur Eddington
Astronomer
28-Dec-1882 22-Nov-1944 Eddington luminosity
Gerald M. Edelman
Scientist
1-Jul-1929   Chemical structure of antibodies
Thomas Edison
Inventor
11-Feb-1847 18-Oct-1931 Invented the light bulb
Paul R. Ehrlich
Scientist
29-May-1932   The Population Bomb
Manfred Eigen
Physicist
9-May-1927   Studied fast chemical reactions
Christiaan Eijkman
Scientist
11-Aug-1858 5-Nov-1930 Research led to discovery of vitamins
Samuel Eilenberg
Mathematician
30-Sep-1913 30-Jan-1998 Category theory
Gertrude B. Elion
Scientist
23-Jan-1918 21-Feb-1999 Developed medicines for leukemia, herpes, AIDS
William L. Emmet
Engineer
10-Jul-1859 26-Sep-1941 All-electric warships
Donald M. Engelman
Biologist
c. 1941   Biochemistry Professor at Yale
Joseph Erlanger
Scientist
5-Jan-1874 5-Dec-1965 Nerve conduction
Richard R. Ernst
Chemist
14-Aug-1933   NMR spectroscopy
Gerhard Ertl
Chemist
10-Oct-1936   Auto emissions and the ozone layer
Martin Feldstein
Economist
25-Nov-1939   Reagan economist
Richard Feynman
Physicist
11-May-1918 15-Feb-1988 Surely he's joking
Andrew Z. Fire
Scientist
27-Apr-1959   RNA interference
Edmond H. Fischer
Scientist
6-Apr-1920   Protein phosphorylation
Franklin M. Fisher
Economist
13-Dec-1934   Economist at MIT
Ronald Fisher
Mathematician
17-Feb-1890 29-Jul-1962 Analysis of variance and covariance
Val Fitch
Physicist
10-Mar-1923   Time not necessarily reversible
Paul J. Flory
Chemist
19-Jun-1910 9-Sep-1985 Studied polymers
Robert W. Fogel
Economist
1-Jul-1926   Cliometrics
Alfred Fowler
Astronomer
22-Mar-1868 24-Jun-1940 Celestial spectroscopy
William A. Fowler
Astronomer
9-Aug-1911 14-Mar-1995 Element generation within stars
Marye Anne Fox
Educator
9-Dec-1947   Chancellor, UC San Diego
James Franck
Physicist
26-Aug-1882 21-May-1964 Franck-Hertz experiment
John R. Freeman
Engineer
27-Jul-1855 6-Oct-1932 Charles River Dam
Jerome I. Friedman
Physicist
28-Mar-1930   Verified existence of quarks
Milton Friedman
Economist
31-Jul-1912 16-Nov-2006 1976 Nobel Prize for Economics
Kenichi Fukui
Chemist
4-Oct-1918 9-Jan-1998 Frontier orbitals
D. Carleton Gajdusek
Scientist
9-Sep-1923 12-Dec-2008 Kuru (slow virus infections)
Robert C. Gallo
Doctor
23-Mar-1937   Identified first retroviruses in humans
George Gamow
Physicist
4-Mar-1904 19-Aug-1968 Proponent of Big Bang Theory
Herbert S. Gasser
Scientist
5-Jul-1888 11-May-1963 Nerve conduction
Murray Gell-Mann
Physicist
15-Sep-1929   Quarks and strangeness
Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
Physicist
24-Oct-1932 18-May-2007 Molecular structure of polymers
Riccardo Giacconi
Astronomer
6-Oct-1931   Discovered cosmic X-ray sources
Ivar Giaever
Physicist
5-Apr-1929   Tunneling through superconductors
William F. Giauque
Chemist
12-May-1895 28-Mar-1982 Adiabatic demagnetization
John H. Gibbon, Jr.
Doctor
29-Sep-1903 5-Feb-1973 Open-heart surgery
S. Malcolm Gillis
Educator
28-Dec-1940   President of Rice University, 1993-2004
James M. Gilliss
Astronomer
6-Sep-1811 9-Feb-1865 Founder, US Naval Observatory
Alfred G. Gilman
Scientist
1-Jul-1941   G-protein cell signal transmission
Robert R. Gilruth
Engineer
18-Oct-1913 17-Aug-2000 NASA scientist
Donald A. Glaser
Physicist
21-Sep-1926   Inventor of the bubble chamber
Sheldon Glashow
Physicist
5-Dec-1932   Electroweak Theory
Roy J. Glauber
Physicist
1-Sep-1925   Quantum optics
Laurie H. Glimcher
Educator
c. 1950   Professor of Immunology at Harvard
Kurt Gödel
Mathematician
28-Apr-1906 14-Jan-1978 Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems
Maria Goeppert-Mayer
Physicist
28-Jun-1906 20-Feb-1972 Shell nuclear model
Thomas Gold
Scientist
22-May-1920 22-Jun-2004 Certain that oil is not a fossil fuel
Maurice Goldhaber
Physicist
18-Apr-1911 11-May-2011 Neutrons
Lee Goldman
Doctor
6-Jan-1948   Goldman Index for cardiac risk
Joseph L. Goldstein
Scientist
18-Apr-1940   Hypercholesterolemia and cell metabolism
Ralph E. Gomory
Business
c. 1938   Alfred P. Sloan Foundation
Bill Gordon
Astronomer
8-Jan-1918 16-Feb-2010 Designed Arecibo radio telescope
Stephen Jay Gould
Biologist
10-Sep-1941 20-May-2002 Evolutionary scientist
Ronald Graham
Mathematician
31-Oct-1935   Mathematician, Computer Scientist
Ragnar Granit
Scientist
30-Oct-1900 31-Mar-1990 Physiology of the retina
Jesse L. Greenstein
Astronomer
15-Oct-1909 21-Oct-2002 Co-Discoverer of quasars
Carol W. Greider
Scientist
15-Apr-1961   Co-Discoverer of telomerase
Zvi Griliches
Economist
12-Sep-1930 4-Nov-1999 Technology, Education, and Productivity
David J. Gross
Physicist
19-Feb-1941   Deep structure of matter
Robert H. Grubbs
Chemist
27-Feb-1942   Metathesis
Roger Guillemin
Scientist
11-Jan-1924   Hypothalamic hormones (brain peptides)
Alan Guth
Physicist
27-Feb-1947   Inflationary theory of cosmology
Jacques-Salomon Hadamard
Mathematician
8-Dec-1865 17-Oct-1963 Prime number theorem
Asaph Hall
Astronomer
15-Oct-1829 22-Nov-1907 Discovered the moons of Mars
Edwin Hall
Physicist
7-Nov-1855 20-Nov-1938 Discovered the Hall Effect
John L. Hall
Physicist
21-Aug-1934   Quantum optics
Sir William Rowan Hamilton
Mathematician
3-Aug-1805 2-Sep-1865 Inventor of Quaternions
James E. Hansen
Scientist
29-Mar-1941   Greenhouse effect and global warming
Ross Granville Harrison
Zoologist
13-Jan-1870 30-Sep-1959 Embryology and tissue culture techniques
John C. Harsanyi
Economist
29-May-1920 9-Aug-2000 Game theory
Haldan K. Hartline
Scientist
22-Dec-1903 17-Mar-1983 Physiology of the retina
Leland H. Hartwell
Scientist
30-Oct-1939   Regulators of cell cycle
E. Newton Harvey
Zoologist
25-Nov-1887 21-Jul-1959 Light-emitting organisms
Herbert A. Hauptman
Mathematician
14-Feb-1917 23-Oct-2011 X-ray diffraction studies
Chushiro Hayashi
Astronomer
25-Jul-1920 28-Feb-2010 Big Bang astrophysicist
James J. Heckman
Economist
19-Apr-1944   Statistical analysis of individual and household behavior
Alan J. Heeger
Physicist
22-Jan-1936   Metallic polymers
John L. Hennessy
Educator
c. 1953   President of Stanford University
Louis Henyey
Astronomer
3-Feb-1910 18-Feb-1970 Henyey method
George Herbig
Astronomer
2-Jan-1920   Herbig-Haro objects
Dudley R. Herschbach
Chemist
18-Jun-1932   Crossed molecular beam experiments
Alfred D. Hershey
Scientist
4-Dec-1908 22-May-1997 Molecular structure of viral genes
Avram Hershko
Scientist
31-Dec-1937   Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation
Melville J. Herskovits
Anthropologist
10-Sep-1895 25-Feb-1963 The Myth of the Negro Past
Gerhard Herzberg
Physicist
25-Dec-1904 3-Mar-1999 Molecular spectroscopy
George W. Hill
Astronomer
3-Mar-1838 16-Apr-1914 A New Theorie of Jupiter and Saturn
David Ho
Doctor
3-Nov-1952   AIDS researcher
Jules A. Hoffmann
Biologist
2-Aug-1941   Innate immunity
Roald Hoffmann
Chemist
18-Jul-1937   Woodward-Hoffmann reaction
Robert Hofstadter
Physicist
5-Feb-1915 17-Nov-1990 Size, shape, and structure of neutrons and protons
Bert Hölldobler
Zoologist
25-Jun-1936   Social organizations in insects
Robert W. Holley
Scientist
28-Jan-1922 11-Feb-1993 RNA's role in protein synthesis
Nick Holonyak
Physicist
3-Nov-1928   Light-emitting diodes
Johannes Holtfreter
Zoologist
9-Jan-1901 13-Nov-1992 Chemotaxis
Leroy Hood
Biologist
10-Oct-1938   Systems biology and Human Genome Project
Donald F. Hornig
Educator
17-Mar-1920   President of Brown University, 1970-76
H. Robert Horvitz
Scientist
8-May-1947   Genetic regulation of organ development
Hendrik S. Houthakker
Economist
31-Dec-1924 15-Apr-2008 Council of Economic Advisers, 1969-71
Fred Hoyle
Astronomer
24-Jun-1915 20-Aug-2001 Opposed the Big Bang but named it
Charles B. Huggins
Scientist
22-Sep-1901 12-Jan-1997 Hormonal treatment of prostate and breast cancers
Vernon W. Hughes
Physicist
28-May-1921 25-Mar-2003 Muons
Albert Wallace Hull
Physicist
19-Apr-1880 22-Jan-1966 Inventor of the magnetron tube
Frederick S. Humphries
Business
c. 1935   Former President, Florida A&M University
Tim Hunt
Scientist
19-Feb-1943   Regulators of cell cycle
Leonid Hurwicz
Economist
21-Aug-1917 24-Jun-2008 Mechanism design theory
Louis J. Ignarro
Scientist
31-May-1941   Nitric oxide as a cardiovascular signal
Kiyoshi Ito
Mathematician
7-Sep-1915 10-Nov-2008 Ito Calculus
Herbert E. Ives
Physicist
21-Jul-1882 13-Nov-1953 Facsimile machine
François Jacob
Scientist
17-Jun-1920   Operon theory of genetic control
Niels K. Jerne
Scientist
23-Dec-1911 7-Oct-1994 Immune theory (anti-antibody)
Deborah S. Jin
Physicist
c. 1968   Created a fermionic condensate
Kelly Johnson
Engineer
27-Feb-1910 21-Dec-1990 Lockheed Skunk Works plane designer
Dale W. Jorgenson
Economist
7-May-1933   Economist at Harvard
Percy Julian
Chemist
11-Apr-1899 19-Apr-1975 Physostigmine and cortisone
Daniel Kahneman
Psychologist
5-Mar-1934   The psychology of economics
Eric R. Kandel
Scientist
7-Nov-1929   Signal transduction in the nervous system
Pyotr Kapitsa
Physicist
8-Jul-1894 8-Apr-1984 Discovered superfluidity
Jerome Karle
Chemist
18-Jun-1918   X-Ray diffraction studies
Martin Karplus
Chemist
15-Mar-1930   Karplus Equation
Paul Karrer
Chemist
21-Apr-1889 18-Jun-1971 Synthesized vitamins A, B2, E, and K
James E. Keeler
Astronomer
10-Sep-1857 12-Aug-1900 Composition of Saturn's rings
Henry W. Kendall
Physicist
9-Dec-1926 15-Feb-1999 Verified existence of quarks
John C. Kendrew
Chemist
24-Mar-1917 23-Aug-1997 Determined structure of myoglobin
Donald Kennedy
Educator
18-Aug-1931   Editor-in-Chief of Science
Arthur E. Kennelly
Physicist
17-Dec-1861 18-Jun-1939 Kennelly-Heaviside layer
Warwick Kerr
Scientist
9-Sep-1922   Introduced african bees to South America
Charles F. Kettering
Engineer
29-Aug-1876 25-Nov-1958 Invented the electric starter
Wolfgang Ketterle
Physicist
21-Oct-1957   Bose-Einstein condensates
Lawrence R. Klein
Economist
14-Sep-1920   Macroeconometric modeling
Aaron Klug
Chemist
11-Aug-1926   Structural analysis of viruses
Jeremy R. Knowles
Business
1935   Chemistry Professor, Harvard University
Donald E. Knuth
Computer Programmer
10-Jan-1938   The Art of Computer Programming
Walter Kohn
Chemist
9-Mar-1923   Density-functional theory
Arthur Kornberg
Scientist
3-Mar-1918 26-Oct-2007 Synthesized DNA
Roger D. Kornberg
Scientist
24-Apr-1947   Molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription
Robert P. Kraft
Astronomer
16-Jun-1927   Lick Observatory
Alfred Kroeber
Anthropologist
11-Jun-1876 5-Oct-1960 Pioneer in American Anthropology
Herbert Kroemer
Physicist
25-Aug-1928   Pioneer in laser technology
Sir Harold Kroto
Chemist
7-Oct-1939   Co-Discovered fullerenes
Polykarp Kusch
Physicist
26-Jan-1911 20-Mar-1993 Magnetic moment of the electron
Willis Lamb
Physicist
12-Jul-1913 15-May-2008 Detailed the hydrogen spectrum
Edwin H. Land
Inventor
7-May-1909 1-Mar-1991 Polaroid Land Camera
Lev Landau
Physicist
22-Jan-1908 1-Apr-1968 Superfluidity of helium
Jonathan Homer Lane
Astronomer
9-Aug-1819 3-May-1880 Gravitational equilibrium of the Sun
Andrew E. Lange
Astronomer
23-Jul-1957 22-Jan-2010 Cosmologist, astrophysicist at Caltech
Robert S. Langer
Chemist
29-Aug-1948   Institute Professor at MIT
Samuel P. Langley
Astronomer
22-Aug-1834 2-Feb-1906 Heavier-than-air flying machine
Robert B. Laughlin
Physicist
1-Nov-1950   Fractional quantum Hall effect
Paul C. Lauterbur
Scientist
6-May-1929 27-Mar-2007 Magnetic resonance imaging
Ernest Lawrence
Physicist
8-Aug-1901 27-Aug-1958 Inventor of the cyclotron
Robert Z. Lawrence
Economist
c. 1948   Council of Economic Advisers, 1999-2001
Edward Lazear
Economist
1948   Chairman, Council of Economic Advisors
Philip Leder
Biologist
19-Nov-1934   Harvard Geneticist
Joshua Lederberg
Biologist
23-May-1925 2-Feb-2008 Genetic properties of bacteria
Leon M. Lederman
Physicist
15-Jul-1922   Researcher of neutrinos
David M. Lee
Physicist
20-Jan-1931   Superfluidity of helium-3
Tsung-Dao Lee
Physicist
25-Nov-1926   Violations of parity law
Yuan T. Lee
Chemist
29-Nov-1936   Crossed molecular beam experiments
Anthony J. Leggett
Physicist
26-Mar-1938   Particle physicist, explored superfluidity
Jean-Marie Lehn
Chemist
30-Sep-1939   Synthesis of molecules
Joseph Leidy
Biologist
9-Sep-1823 30-Apr-1891 Trichinosis and dinosaurs
Robert B. Leighton
Astronomer
10-Sep-1919 9-Mar-1997 Leighton dishes
Tom Leighton
Mathematician
c. 1956   Co-founder of Akamai
Luis Leloir
Chemist
6-Sep-1906 2-Dec-1987 Conversion of carbohydrates
Abba Lerner
Economist
28-Oct-1903 27-Oct-1982 The Economics of Control
Richard A. Lerner
Biologist
28-Aug-1938   Scripps Research Institute
Armin O. Leuschner
Astronomer
16-Jan-1868 22-Apr-1953 Astronomer at Berkeley
Rita Levi-Montalcini
Scientist
22-Apr-1909   Nerve and skin cell growth factors
Claude Lévi-Strauss
Anthropologist
28-Nov-1908 1-Nov-2009 French anthropologist
Arnold J. Levine
Biologist
1939   Cancer researcher
Edward B. Lewis
Scientist
20-May-1918 21-Jul-2004 Drosophila researcher, Nobel laureate
Willard F. Libby
Chemist
17-Dec-1908 8-Sep-1980 Carbon-14 dating technique
Susan L. Lindquist
Biologist
5-Jun-1949   Protein folding
Ralph Linton
Anthropologist
27-Feb-1893 25-Dec-1953 The Study of Man
William Lipscomb
Chemist
9-Dec-1919 14-Apr-2011 Chemical bonding
Alfred Lee Loomis
Physicist
4-Nov-1887 1-Aug-1975 Millionaire scientist
Edward Lorenz
Scientist
23-May-1917 16-Apr-2008 Chaos theory
Frank J. Low
Astronomer
23-Nov-1933 11-Jun-2009 Infrared astronomy
Robert Lucas
Economist
15-Sep-1937   Theory of rational expectations
Salvador Luria
Biologist
13-Aug-1912 6-Feb-1991 Natural selection in bacteria
Willem J. Luyten
Astronomer
7-Mar-1899 21-Nov-1994 Stellar mortician
André Lwoff
Scientist
8-May-1902 30-Sep-1994 Operon theory of genetic control
Princeton Lyman
Diplomat
20-Nov-1935   US Ambassador to South Africa, 1992-95
Donald Lynden-Bell
Astronomer
5-Apr-1935   Astrophysicist at Cambridge
Feodor Lynen
Scientist
6-Apr-1911 6-Aug-1979 Cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism
J. Bernard Machen
Educator
26-Mar-1944   President, University of Florida
Roderick MacKinnon
Biologist
19-Feb-1956   Ion channels of cell membranes
Benoit Mandelbrot
Mathematician
20-Nov-1924 14-Oct-2010 Fractal mathematician
Michael E. Mann
Physicist
28-Dec-1965   Climate change scientist
Robert W. Mann
Inventor
1924 16-Jun-2006 Prosthetic devices
Rudolph A. Marcus
Chemist
21-Jul-1923   Electron-transfer reactions
Geoffrey W. Marcy
Astronomer
29-Sep-1954   Discoverer of exoplanets
Lynn Margulis
Biologist
5-Mar-1935 22-Nov-2011 Origin of eukaryotic organelles
Hans Mark
Physicist
17-Jun-1929   US Air Force Secretary, 1979-81
John C. Mather
Physicist
7-Aug-1946   Big Bang
Ernst Mayr
Biologist
5-Jul-1904 3-Feb-2005 Evolutionary biologist
John McCarthy
Computer Programmer
4-Sep-1927 24-Oct-2011 Created LISP programming language
Mark McClellan
Government
26-Jun-1963   Medicare Chief
Barbara McClintock
Scientist
16-Jun-1902 2-Sep-1992 Discovered transposable genes
William D. McElroy
Biologist
22-Jan-1917 17-Feb-1999 Bioluminescence
Daniel L. McFadden
Economist
29-Jul-1937   Statistical analysis of individual and household behavior
Victor A. McKusick
Scientist
21-Oct-1921 22-Jul-2008 Father of medical genetics
Edwin M. McMillan
Physicist
18-Sep-1907 7-Sep-1991 Discovered neptunium and plutonium
Carver A. Mead
Engineer
1-May-1934   Microelectronics
Craig C. Mello
Scientist
19-Oct-1960   RNA interference
Bruce Merrifield
Chemist
15-Jul-1921 14-May-2006 Synthesized polypeptides
Paul W. Merrill
Astronomer
15-Aug-1887 19-Jul-1961 S-process of nucleosynthesis
Robert C. Merton
Economist
31-Jul-1944   Risk management and options
Robert K. Merton
Sociologist
4-Jul-1910 23-Feb-2003 On the Shoulders of Giants
Ruben Mettler
Business
23-Feb-1924 23-May-2006 CEO of TRW, 1969-77
Otto Meyerhof
Scientist
12-Apr-1884 6-Oct-1951 Glycogen-lactic acid cycle
Hartmut Michel
Chemist
18-Jul-1948   Proteins of photosynthesis
Albert A. Michelson
Physicist
19-Dec-1852 9-May-1931 Measured the speed of light
Thomas Midgley
Chemist
18-May-1889 2-Nov-1944 Ethyl gasoline, Freon
Stanley Miller
Chemist
7-Mar-1930 20-May-2007 Miller-Urey Experiment
Robert A. Millikan
Physicist
22-Mar-1868 19-Dec-1953 Determined the charge of an electron
César Milstein
Scientist
8-Oct-1927 24-Mar-2002 Hybridoma technique (monoclonal antibodies)
Raymond D. Mindlin
Engineer
17-Sep-1906 22-Nov-1987 Mindlin's problem
Rudolph Minkowski
Astronomer
28-May-1895 4-Jan-1976 Galaxies in collision
Marvin Minsky
Scientist
9-Aug-1927   Father of Artificial Intelligence
James A. Mirrlees
Economist
5-Jul-1936   Asymmetric information in economics
Peter Mitchell
Chemist
29-Sep-1920 10-Apr-1992 ADP to ATP conversion in mitochondia
Franco Modigliani
Economist
18-Jun-1918 25-Sep-2003 Life-cycle theory
Mario J. Molina
Chemist
19-Mar-1943   Ozone depletion
Jacques Monod
Scientist
9-Feb-1910 31-May-1976 Operon theory of genetic control
Stanford Moore
Chemist
4-Sep-1913 23-Aug-1982 Amino-acid analyzer
Lewis Henry Morgan
Anthropologist
21-Nov-1818 17-Dec-1881 Ancient Society
William W. Morgan
Astronomer
3-Jan-1906 21-Jun-1994 Spiral arms of the Milky Way Galaxy
K. Alex Müller
Physicist
20-Apr-1927   High-temperature superconductivity
Robert S. Mulliken
Chemist
7-Jun-1896 31-Oct-1986 Molecular orbital theory
Woodrow A. Myers, Jr.
Doctor
14-Feb-1954   EVP at Wellpoint, 2000-05
Yoichiro Nambu
Physicist
18-Jan-1921   Spontaneous broken symmetry
Gerry Neugebauer
Astronomer
1932   Infrared astronomy
Simon Newcomb
Astronomer
12-Mar-1835 11-Jul-1909 Nautical Almanac
Ernest Fox Nichols
Physicist
1-Jun-1869 29-Apr-1924 Infrared radiation
Marshall W. Nirenberg
Scientist
10-Apr-1927 15-Jan-2010 RNA's role in protein synthesis
John H. Northrop
Chemist
5-Jul-1891 27-May-1987 Bacteriophages
Robert Noyce
Inventor
12-Dec-1927 3-Jun-1990 Co-Inventor, integrated circuit
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
Scientist
20-Oct-1942   Embryonic development of fruit flies
Robert B. Oakley
Diplomat
12-Mar-1931   US Ambassador to Pakistan, 1988-91
George A. Olah
Chemist
22-May-1927   Isolated carbonium ions
Lars Onsager
Chemist
27-Nov-1903 5-Oct-1976 Fourth Law of Thermodynamics
Douglas D. Osheroff
Physicist
1-Aug-1945   Superfluidity of helium-3
Donald E. Osterbrock
Astronomer
13-Jul-1924 11-Jan-2007 Director of Lick Observatory, 1973-81
Elinor Ostrom
Sociologist
7-Aug-1933 12-Jun-2012 Common-pool resources
Bohdan Paczynski
Astronomer
8-Feb-1940 19-Apr-2007 Gravitational microlensing
David C. Page
Biologist
6-Jul-1956   Director, Whitehead Institute
George E. Palade
Scientist
19-Nov-1912 7-Oct-2008 Microstructure of the cell
Eugene Parker
Astronomer
10-Jun-1927   Solar winds
Linus Pauling
Chemist
28-Feb-1901 19-Aug-1994 Scientist and peacenik
Raymond Pearl
Biologist
3-Jun-1879 17-Nov-1940 Biogerontology
P. James E. Peebles
Astronomer
25-Apr-1935   Galaxy formation
Benjamin Peirce
Mathematician
4-Apr-1809 10-Jun-1880 Idempotent and nilpotent
Roger Penrose
Mathematician
8-Aug-1931   Theory of cosmic censorship
Arno Penzias
Astronomer
26-Apr-1933   Detected primordial radiation
Martin L. Perl
Physicist
24-Jun-1927   Discovered the tau lepton
Saul Perlmutter
Astronomer
1959   Accelerating expansion of the universe
Edmund S. Phelps
Economist
26-Jul-1933   Golden Rules of Economic Growth
William D. Phillips
Physicist
5-Nov-1948   Trapped atoms with laser light
Thomas Pickering
Diplomat
5-Nov-1931   Career US Ambassador
Gregory Pincus
Scientist
9-Apr-1903 22-Aug-1967 Inventor of oral contraceptives
Kenneth S. Pitzer
Chemist
6-Jan-1914 26-Dec-1997 President of Rice University, 1961-68
John C. Polanyi
Chemist
23-Jan-1929   Infrared chemiluminescence
George Porter
Chemist
6-Dec-1920 31-Aug-2002 Rapid chemical and biological processes
Rodney R. Porter
Scientist
8-Oct-1917 6-Sep-1985 Chemical structure of antibodies
George H. Poste
Biologist
c. 1944   Health Technology Networks
John Wesley Powell
Geologist
24-Mar-1834 23-Sep-1902 Exploration of the Colorado River
Vladimir Prelog
Chemist
23-Jul-1906 7-Jan-1998 Stereochemistry of enzyme-catalysts
Ilya Prigogine
Chemist
25-Jan-1917 28-May-2003 Theory of dissipative structures
Stanley B. Prusiner
Scientist
28-May-1942   Prions
E. M. Purcell
Physicist
30-Aug-1912 7-Mar-1997 Nuclear magnetic resonance
Isidor Isaac Rabi
Physicist
29-Jul-1898 11-Jan-1988 Magnetic beam resonances
James Rainwater
Physicist
9-Dec-1917 31-May-1986 Determined shapes of nuclei
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
Scientist
1952   Ribosomes
Norman F. Ramsey
Physicist
27-Aug-1915 4-Nov-2011 Energy levels of atoms
C. N. R. Rao
Chemist
30-Jun-1934   Chemistry of superconductivity
Martin Rees
Astronomer
23-Jun-1942   President of the Royal Society
Frederick Reines
Physicist
16-Mar-1918 26-Aug-1998 Co-Discover of the neutrino
Robert C. Richardson
Physicist
26-Jun-1937   Superfluidity of helium-3
Burton Richter
Physicist
22-Mar-1931   Co-Discoverer of J/psi meson
Oscar Riddle
Biologist
27-Sep-1877 29-Nov-1968 Prolactin
Adam G. Riess
Astronomer
1969   Accelerating expansion of the universe
Ron Rivest
Computer Programmer
1947   The R in RSA
Charles W. Robinson
Business
7-Sep-1919   Deputy Secretary of State, 1976-77
Irwin Rose
Scientist
16-Jul-1926   Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation
Bruno Rossi
Astronomer
13-Apr-1905 21-Nov-1993 Rossi curve and magnetopause
John W. Rowe
Business
20-Jun-1944   CEO of Aetna, 2000-06
F. Sherwood Rowland
Chemist
28-Jun-1927 10-Mar-2012 Ozone depletion
Carlo Rubbia
Physicist
31-Mar-1934   Co-Discovered W and Z particles
Vera Rubin
Astronomer
23-Jul-1928   Structure of galaxies
Albert Sabin
Biologist
26-Aug-1906 3-Mar-1993 Developed oral polio vaccine
Thomas J. Sargent
Economist
19-Jul-1943   Rational expectations theory
Wallace Sargent
Astronomer
15-Feb-1935   Astrophysicist at CalTech
AnnaLee Saxenian
Scholar
c. 1954   Information technologist
Arthur L. Schawlow
Physicist
5-May-1921 28-Apr-1999 Laser spectroscopy
Thomas C. Schelling
Economist
14-Apr-1921   The Strategy of Conflict
Frank Schlesinger
Astronomer
11-May-1871 10-Jul-1943 Stellar parallaxes
Brian P. Schmidt
Astronomer
24-Feb-1967   Accelerating universe
Maarten Schmidt
Astronomer
28-Dec-1929   Co-Discoverer of quasars
Robert Schrieffer
Physicist
31-May-1931   BCS Theory of Superconductivity
Richard R. Schrock
Chemist
4-Jan-1945   Metathesis
Theodore W. Schultz
Economist
30-Apr-1902 26-Feb-1998 Investment in Human Capital
Melvin Schwartz
Physicist
2-Nov-1932 28-Aug-2006 Researcher of neutrinos
Martin Schwarzschild
Astronomer
31-May-1912 10-Apr-1997 Structure and Evolution of the Stars
Julian Schwinger
Physicist
12-Feb-1918 16-Jul-1994 Quantum electrodynamics
Glenn Seaborg
Physicist
19-Apr-1912 25-Feb-1999 Co-Discoverer of Plutonium
Frederick Hanley Seares
Astronomer
17-May-1873 20-Jul-1964 Astronomer at Mt. Wilson Observatory
William R. Sears
Engineer
1-Mar-1913 12-Oct-2002 Airfoil engineer
Michael Seaton
Astronomer
16-Jun-1923 29-May-2007 Opacity Project
Emilio Segrè
Physicist
30-Jan-1905 22-Apr-1989 Co-Discoverer of the antiproton
Nikolay Semyonov
Chemist
15-Apr-1896 25-Sep-1986 Combustion, explosions, and chemical kinetics
Claude Shannon
Scientist
30-Apr-1916 24-Feb-2001 Pioneer in information theory
Phillip A. Sharp
Biologist
6-Jun-1944   Eukaryotic (split) genes
K. Barry Sharpless
Chemist
28-Apr-1941   Chiral catalysts
Thomas E. Shenk
Biologist
c. 1947   Princeton Molecular Biologist
Willow B. Shire
Business
c. 1948   Orchard Consulting Group
Iosif S. Shklovskii
Astronomer
1-Jul-1916 3-Mar-1985 Synchrotron radiation of the Crab Nebula
William Shockley
Physicist
13-Feb-1910 12-Aug-1989 Co-Inventor of the transistor
Clifford G. Shull
Physicist
23-Sep-1915 31-Mar-2001 Neutron scattering
Christopher A. Sims
Economist
21-Oct-1942   Statistical theory of time series
Isadore Singer
Mathematician
3-May-1924   Atiyah-Singer index theorem
Theda Skocpol
Educator
4-May-1947   Harvard sociologist, political scientist
Jens C. Skou
Scientist
8-Oct-1918   ATPase researcher
Matthew J. Slaughter
Economist
c. 1968   Council of Economic Advisers, 2005-07
V. M. Slipher
Astronomer
11-Nov-1875 8-Nov-1969 Interstellar dust
Richard E. Smalley
Chemist
6-Jun-1943 28-Oct-2005 Co-Discovered fullerines
Theobald Smith
Scientist
31-Jul-1859 10-Dec-1934 Infectious and parasitic diseases
Vernon L. Smith
Economist
1-Jan-1927   Experimental economics
Oliver Smithies
Scientist
23-Jun-1925   Knock-out mice
George D. Snell
Scientist
19-Dec-1903 6-Jun-1996 Recognition of HLA antigens
Robert M. Solow
Economist
23-Aug-1924   Theory of economic growth
Alfred Sommer
Doctor
1942   SPH Dean at Johns Hopkins, 1990-2005
Arnold Sommerfeld
Physicist
5-Dec-1868 26-Apr-1951 Fine-structure constant
Hugo F. Sonnenschein
Economist
1941   President, University of Chicago, 1993-2000
Elmer Sperry
Inventor
12-Oct-1860 10-Jun-1930 Gyroscopic compass
Roger W. Sperry
Scientist
20-Aug-1913 17-Apr-1994 "Split brain" hemispheric neurophysiology
Lyman Spitzer, Jr.
Astronomer
26-Jun-1914 31-Mar-1997 Father of space telescopes
Philip Sporn
Engineer
25-Nov-1896 23-Jan-1978 American Electric Power Company
Joel Stebbins
Astronomer
30-Jul-1878 16-Mar-1966 Photoelectric photometry
William H. Stein
Chemist
25-Jun-1911 2-Feb-1980 Amino-acid analyzer
Jack Steinberger
Physicist
25-May-1921   Researcher of neutrinos
Ralph M. Steinman
Biologist
14-Jan-1943 30-Sep-2011 Dendritic cells
Thomas A. Steitz
Scientist
23-Aug-1940   Ribosomes
Otto Stern
Physicist
17-Feb-1888 17-Aug-1969 Molecular beam experiment
H. Guyford Stever
Educator
24-Oct-1916 9-Apr-2010 President of CMU, 1965-72
George J. Stigler
Economist
17-Jan-1911 1-Dec-1991 Economic Theory of Regulation
Joseph Stiglitz
Economist
9-Feb-1943   Ex-Chief Economist of the World Bank
Horst L. Störmer
Physicist
6-Apr-1949   Fractional quantum Hall effect
Thomas P. Stossel
Doctor
c. 1941   Professor, Harvard Medical School
Louis Wade Sullivan
Government
3-Nov-1933   US Secretary of HHS, 1989-93
Lawrence H. Summers
Economist
30-Nov-1954   US Treasury Secretary, 1999-2001
James B. Sumner
Chemist
19-Nov-1887 12-Aug-1955 Crystallized enzymes
Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.
Scientist
19-Nov-1915 9-Mar-1974 Hormones mechanisms (cyclic AMP)
Ivan Sutherland
Engineer
16-May-1938   Father of computer graphics
The Svedberg
Chemist
30-Aug-1884 25-Feb-1971 Inventor of the ultracentrifuge
Timothy Swager
Chemist
1-Jul-1961   Chemist at MIT
Ambrose Swasey
Business
19-Dec-1846 15-Jun-1937 Warner and Swasey Company and Observatory
Albert Szent-Györgyi
Scientist
16-Sep-1893 22-Oct-1986 Vitamins C and B2
Leo Szilard
Physicist
11-Feb-1898 30-May-1964 Nuclear chain reaction
Jack W. Szostak
Scientist
9-Nov-1952   First artificial chromosome
Terence Tao
Mathematician
17-Jul-1975   Prolific math prodigy
Alfred Tarski
Mathematician
14-Jan-1902 26-Oct-1983 Tarski's indefinability theorem
Edward Tatum
Scientist
14-Dec-1909 7-Nov-1975 One gene, one enzyme theory
Henry Taube
Chemist
30-Nov-1915 16-Nov-2005 Mechanisms of electron transfer
Helen B. Taussig
Doctor
24-May-1898 20-May-1986 Mother of pediatric cardiology
Joseph H. Taylor, Jr.
Astronomer
24-Mar-1941   Co-Discovered first binary pulsar
Richard E. Taylor
Physicist
2-Nov-1929   Verified existence of quarks
Howard M. Temin
Scientist
10-Dec-1934 9-Feb-1994 Tumor viruses and host genetics
Frederick Terman
Scientist
7-Jun-1900 19-Dec-1982 Stanford Research Park
Lewis Terman
Psychologist
15-Jan-1877 21-Dec-1956 Intelligence tests
Norman Thagard
Astronaut
3-Jul-1943   Shuttle astronaut
Hugo Theorell
Scientist
6-Jul-1903 15-Aug-1982 Oxidation enzymes
E. Donnall Thomas
Scientist
15-Mar-1920   Bone marrow transplants
Lewis Thomas
Doctor
25-Nov-1913 3-Dec-1993 The Lives of a Cell
Ken Thompson
Computer Programmer
4-Feb-1943   Co-creator of UNIX
Lonnie Thompson
Scientist
1-Jul-1948   Paleoclimatologist, glaciologist
Elihu Thomson
Inventor
29-Mar-1853 13-Mar-1937 Electric welding and A/C motors
Shirley M. Tilghman
Educator
17-Sep-1946   President of Princeton University
Stephen Timoshenko
Engineer
23-Dec-1878 29-May-1972 Mechanical engineering professor at Stanford
Samuel C. C. Ting
Physicist
27-Jan-1936   Co-Discoverer of J/psi meson
Arne Tiselius
Chemist
10-Aug-1902 29-Aug-1971 Electrophoresis
Alexander R. Todd
Chemist
2-Oct-1907 10-Jan-1997 Nuclaic acid, nucleotides
Sin-Itiro Tomonaga
Physicist
31-Mar-1906 8-Jul-1979 Quantum electrodynamics
Charles H. Townes
Physicist
28-Jul-1915   Invention of the maser and laser
Roger Y. Tsien
Scientist
1-Feb-1952   Green Fluorescent Protein
Daniel C. Tsui
Physicist
28-Feb-1939   Fractional quantum Hall effect
Merle Tuve
Physicist
27-Jun-1901 20-May-1982 Proximity fuse
Amos Tversky
Psychologist
16-Mar-1937 2-Jun-1996 Cognitive psychologist, studied risks
Neil deGrasse Tyson
Astronomer
5-Oct-1958   Astrophysicist
Harold C. Urey
Chemist
29-Apr-1893 5-Jan-1981 Discovered Deuterium
Wylie Vale, Jr.
Doctor
3-Jul-1941 3-Jan-2012 Endocrinologist at Salk Institute
James Van Allen
Astronomer
7-Sep-1914 9-Aug-2006 Discovered the Van Allen Belt
John H. van Vleck
Physicist
13-Mar-1899 27-Oct-1980 Quantum theory of paramagnetism
John R. Vane
Scientist
29-Mar-1927 19-Nov-2004 Prostaglandins
Harold E. Varmus
Scientist
18-Dec-1939   Genetic causes of cancer
William Vickrey
Economist
21-Jun-1914 11-Oct-1996 Asymmetric information in economics
Vincent du Vigneaud
Chemist
18-May-1901 11-Dec-1978 Synthesized vasopressin and oxytocin
Andrew J. Viterbi
Engineer
9-Mar-1935   Viterbi Algorithm
John von Neumann
Mathematician
28-Dec-1903 8-Feb-1957 Computing pioneer, inventor of Game Theory
Johannes Diderik van der Waals
Physicist
23-Nov-1837 9-Mar-1923 Investigated states of matter
George Wald
Biologist
18-Nov-1906 12-Apr-1997 Physiology of the retina
Margaret Floy Washburn
Psychologist
25-Jul-1871 29-Oct-1939 First female American psychologist
James Craig Watson
Astronomer
28-Jan-1838 23-Nov-1880 Claimed to discover the planet Vulcan
Alvin M. Weinberg
Physicist
20-Apr-1915 18-Oct-2006 Nuclear scientist
Steven Weinberg
Physicist
3-May-1933   Electroweak Theory
Victor Weisskopf
Physicist
19-Sep-1908 21-Apr-2002 Head of CERN, 1961-65
William H. Welch
Scientist
8-Apr-1850 30-Apr-1934 Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
George M. Whitesides
Chemist
3-Aug-1939   Harvard chemist, highest H-Index
Carl E. Wieman
Physicist
26-Mar-1951   Bose-Einstein Condensates
Norbert Wiener
Mathematician
26-Nov-1894 18-Mar-1964 Cybernetics
Eric F. Wieschaus
Scientist
8-Jun-1947   Embryonic development of fruit flies
Torsten N. Wiesel
Scientist
3-Jun-1924   Neurophysiology of vision
Jeffrey Wigand
Scientist
17-Dec-1942   Tobacco industry whistleblower
Eugene Wigner
Physicist
17-Nov-1902 1-Jan-1995 Law of conservation of parity
Frank Wilczek
Physicist
15-May-1951   Deep structure of matter
Geoffrey Wilkinson
Chemist
14-Jul-1921 26-Sep-1996 Organometallic "sandwich" compounds
R. Sanders Williams
Educator
1948   Dean of Duke's Medical School
Oliver E. Williamson
Economist
27-Sep-1932   Transaction cost economics
Edward O. Wilson
Biologist
10-Jun-1929   Father of Sociobiology
Kenneth G. Wilson
Physicist
8-Jun-1936   Second-order phase transitions
Robert Woodrow Wilson
Astronomer
10-Jan-1936   Detected primordial radiation
William Julius Wilson
Sociologist
20-Dec-1935   Poverty in America's inner cities
Edward Witten
Physicist
26-Aug-1951   String theorist at Princeton
Robert B. Woodward
Chemist
10-Apr-1917 8-Jul-1979 Synthesized cholesterol, Vitamin B12, etc.
Kurt Wüthrich
Chemist
4-Oct-1938   Magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Joe B. Wyatt
Educator
c. 1935   Chancellor of Vanderbilt University, 1982-2000
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow
Physicist
19-Jul-1921 30-May-2011 Developed radioimmunoassay technique
Janet L. Yellen
Economist
13-Aug-1946   President and CEO, San Francisco Fed
Ada E. Yonath
Scientist
22-Jun-1939   Cryocrystallography
Hideki Yukawa
Physicist
23-Jan-1907 8-Sep-1981 Predicted existence of mesons
Ahmed H. Zewail
Chemist
26-Feb-1946   Femtochemistry
Hans Zinsser
Scientist
17-Nov-1878 4-Sep-1940 Typhus vaccine


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Bibliographies

NNDB has added thousands of bibliographies for people, organizations, schools, and general topics, listing more than 50,000 books and 120,000 other kinds of references. They may be accessed by the "Bibliography" tab at the top of most pages, or via the "Related Topics" box in the sidebar. Please feel free to suggest books that might be critical omissions.