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Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin

Dorothy Crowfoot HodgkinAKA Dorothy Mary Crowfoot

Born: 12-May-1910
Birthplace: Cairo, Egypt
Died: 29-Jul-1994
Location of death: Shipston-on-Stour, Warwickshire, England
Cause of death: Stroke

Gender: Female
Race or Ethnicity: White
Sexual orientation: Straight
Occupation: Chemist

Nationality: England
Executive summary: Determined structure of Vitamin B12

British chemist Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin studied under J. D. Bernal, and used x-ray crystallography, which draws on the science of physics, math, and chemistry to ascertain the structure of atoms. She made major advances to the techniques of crystallography, won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1964, and became the second woman to be honored with England's Order of Merit after Florence Nightingale in 1965.

In 1942 she became the first scientist to determine the three-dimensional structure of a complex bio-organic molecule, using x-ray diffraction and her own longhand calculations to determine the structure of cholesteryl iodide. In 1944 she determined the three-dimensional structure of penicillin. In 1956 she detailed the molecular structure of vitamin B12, using early punch-card technology, in the first major biochemical research endeavor to use computer technology. In 1969 she analyzed the complete structure of the 777 atoms that make up insulin crystals, a project she had pursued since 1935, when she took the first x-ray diffraction photographs of insulin. She was also an activist for causes related to world peace and human rights, and was co-founder and President of the Pugwash Conference of Science and World Affairs from 1976-88. Her husband, historian Thomas L. Hodgkin, was a first cousin of Nobel laureate Alan L. Hodgkin.

Father: John Winter Crowfoot (archaeologist)
Mother: Grace Mary Hood Crowfoot (botanical illustrator)
Husband: Thomas L. Hodgkin (historian, m. 3-Apr-1910, m. 1937, d. 25-Mar-1982, three children)
Daughter: Elizabeth
Son: Luke
Son: Toby

    High School: Sir John Leman School, Beccles, England (1928)
    University: BS Chemistry, Somerville College, Oxford University (1931)
    University: MS Chemistry, Somerville College, Oxford University (1932)
    University: PhD Structural Crystallography, Cambridge University (1937)
    Scholar: Somerville College, Oxford University (1934-36)
    Fellow: Somerville College, Oxford University (1936-77)
    Teacher: Natural Science, Somerville College, Oxford University (1936-46)
    Lecturer: Natural Science, Somerville College, Oxford University (1946-56)
    Lecturer: Chemical Crystallography, Somerville College, Oxford University (1956-60)
    Professor: Wolfson Professor of the Royal Society, Somerville College, Oxford University (1960-77)
    Administrator: Chancellor, Bristol University (1970-88)
    Professor: X-ray Crystallography, Wolfson College, Oxford University (1977-82)

    Royal Medal 1956
    Nobel Prize for Chemistry 1964
    Order of Merit 1965
    Copley Medal 1976
    RSC Longstaff Prize 1978
    Mikhail Lomonosov Gold Medal 1982
    Dimitrov Prize of Bulgaria 1984
    Lenin Peace Prize 1987
    International Union of Crystallography Founding Member, 1946
    International Union of Crystallography President, 1972-75
    Royal Society 1947
    Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences Foreign Member, 1956
    American Academy of Arts and Sciences Foreign Member, 1958
    Indian Academy of Sciences Foreign Fellow
    Royal Institution of Great Britain Foreign Member
    Russian Academy of Sciences Foreign Member
    Pugwash Conference of Science and World Affairs Co-Founder, 1976
    Pugwash Conference of Science and World Affairs President, 1976-88
    British Association for the Advancement of Science President, 1977-78
    Rockefeller Foundation Research grants
    English Ancestry
    Stroke 29-Jul-1994 (fatal)
    Risk Factors: Rheumatoid Arthritis

Author of books:
The collected works of Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin (1994)


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