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Maurice Goldhaber

Born: 18-Apr-1911
Birthplace: Lviv, Ukraine
Died: 11-May-2011
Location of death: Long Island, NY
Cause of death: Illness

Gender: Male
Religion: Jewish
Race or Ethnicity: White
Sexual orientation: Straight
Occupation: Physicist

Nationality: United States
Executive summary: Neutrons

American physicist Maurice Goldhaber studied under Lise Meitner, Erwin Schrödinger, and Max von Laue at the University of Berlin, until fleeing Nazi Germany in 1933. He then came to Cambridge, where he studied under Ernest Rutherford. With James Chadwick he discovered that the neutron is a distinct particle (not merely a compound of proton and electron) and showed that certain nuclei can be broken up by bombardment with slow neutrons. With his wife, physicist Gertrude Scharff-Goldhaber, he showed that electrons and beta rays are the same. With Edward Teller he developed the concept that coherent oscillations of the protons and neutrons in nuclei lead to a giant dipole resonance. With physicist Lee Grodzins he showed the leftward spin of neutrinos. And with Kenneth Bainbridge he showed that isomeric decay probability can be affected by an atom's electronic environment. His study of slow-neutron scattering led to the development of nuclear reactors. His wife discovered that spontaneous fission is associated with the emission of neutrons, and the couple's students included Norman F. Ramsey and Rosalyn Sussman Yalow.

Brother: Gerson Goldhaber (physicist)
Wife: Gertrude Scharff Goldhaber (physicist, b. circa 1912, d. 1986)
Son: Alfred Goldhaber (physicist)
Son: Michael Goldhaber (physicist)

    High School: Chemnitz Real-Gymnasium, Chemnitz, Germany (1930)
    University: University of Berlin (attended, 1930-33)
    University: PhD Physics, Cambridge University (1936)
    Professor: Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (1938-50)
    Scholar: Brookhaven National Laboratory (1950-73)
    Administrator: Director, Brookhaven National Laboratory (1961-73)

    Wolf Prize in Physics 1991 (with Valentine L. Telegdi)
    Enrico Fermi Award 1998
    Rossi Prize 1989
    National Medal of Science 1983
    Oppenheimer Memorial Prize 1982
    Bonner Prize in Nuclear Physics 1971
    Academy of Achievement
    American Academy of Arts and Sciences
    American Association for the Advancement of Science
    American Philosophical Society
    American Physical Society President (1983)
    National Academy of Sciences
    Naturalized US Citizen
    Austrian Ancestry
    Ukrainian Ancestry

Author of books:
Nuclear Isomerism and Shell Structure: A Review (1952)


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